Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Non Controlling Interests And Goodwill Accounting Essay

Non Controlling Interests And Goodwill Accounting Essay Presentation IFRS 3 which includes Business Combinations will fabricate significant changes in business mixes bookkeeping. IFRS 3 grows more the obtaining portrayal and applies to more everyday exchanges, since blends by contract just notwithstanding mixes of normal elements are fused in the norm. By and by, normal oversaw exchanges and the advancement of joint endeavors are not considered in the reconsidered norm. IFRS 3 applies to the first time of bookkeeping initiating on 1/07/09. Quite, review machine to past business mixes isnt allowed. It tends to be utilized ahead of schedule as long as its not in the time of bookkeeping beginning on or after 30/07/07. Foundation In 2008 the International Accounting Standards Board completed the second phase of its Project on Business mixes by discharging a changed version of IFRS 3 identifying with Business Combinations. It was revised so as to supplant the 2004 form. The changed IFRS 3 is the result of a joined venture with the Financial Accounting Standards Board Degree Depiction of business mix . Its an event of exchanges whereby the buyer picks up control more than 1 or numerous business substances. A business substance is portrayed as a fused spot of activities that can perform and work so as to give an arrival to investors or other capital proprietors or some other members in the business. The buyer or the obtaining organization should be perceived or distinguished. IFRS 3 specifies that an acquirer must be recognized or distinguished in all cases including business blends. Varieties in the extension from the 2004 adaptation of IFRS 3 when contrasted with 2008 IFRS 3 form is utilized in blends of joint business substances just as mixes which don't have thought for instance double recorded organization shares. Such are excluded from unrevised IFRS. Avoidances from the extension: The IFRS 3 can't be utilized if there should arise an occurrence of advancement of a joint endeavor or mix of business element under normal administration or control. IFRS 3 can't be utilized the acquisition of a benefit or an assortment of advantages which dont involve a business element. Buy thought Significant changes to the standard include the buy thought. Reasonable estimation of all advantages held once in the past by the acquirer in the recently procured organization is at present consolidated in the thought. This fuses all enthusiasm for joint endeavors embraced and partner just as value interests in the recently procured organization. Any former endeavor is seen to be provided up so as to get the organization/substance and on removal date an increase or misfortune is considered. On the off chance that the acquirer recently had enthusiasm for the substance got before securing, IFRS3 specifies that the current dare to be revalued to reasonable expense as at the procurement date, calculating in all progressions to the benefit and misfortune account just as any increases once in the past archived in value that relate to the current holding structure. An addition is acknowledged in the salary articulation during the time of business mix. Unexpected thought prerequisites have been adjusted. Unforeseen thought is these days acknowledged at reasonable worth even in situations where its not prone to pay at the procurement date. All resulting adjustment to obligation unexpected thought is taken to the salary articulation, rather than generosity account since it is seen to be an obligation recognized in the global bookkeeping standard 32/39. In the event that obligations for unrivaled execution by the outcomes in the auxiliary reason consumption in the pay proclamation to increment and under-execution by the auxiliary against targets will prompt a reduction in the foreseen installment and will be accounted as a benefit in the announcement of salary. These adjustments in unforeseen thought were once in the past taken in the altruism account. The standard no longer treats exchange costs as a segment of the buy cost; such overheads are expensed all through the bookkeeping time frame. Exchange costs are presently considered not to comprise what is given to the gathering selling the element. They arent expected to be taken as resources of the procured element which should be recognized on the buy date. The standard specifies that organizations ought to uncover the amount of exchange costs that have been paid. IFRS 3 mulls over the treatment of representative offer based installments by remembering advantageous guideline for estimation, just as how to go to a choice on whether share installments establish some portion of the installment for future help pay or business mix. Non-controlling interests and Goodwill IFRS3 furnishes organizations with another option, on an individual activity premise, to esteem minority intrigue or non controlling enthusiasm at reasonable incentive corresponding to a lot of specific liabilities and resources or at their reasonable worth. The second procedure will consider generosity identifying with the non-controlling interest along with the controlling interest procured while the first method will prompt valuation of altruism, which is basically like the current IFRS Estimation of generosity can likewise be attempted utilizing the full altruism premise, in this strategy generosity is estimated for the minority intrigue/non-controlling and furthermore the controlling enthusiasm for an auxiliary. In the previous release of IFRS 3, non controlling interest was esteemed at their extent of net resources and prohibited any generosity. Under the Full generosity technique it implies that minority intrigue (non controlling interest) along with altruism is expanded by the estimation of generosity that relates to minority intrigue. Model Mercer has bought an auxiliary organization on 2 February 2008. The net resources reasonable estimation of the auxiliary organization is $2,170million. Mercer bought 70 percent of the complete portions of the auxiliary organization for $2,145million. The minority intrigue was estimated at $683million. Altruism perceived on the full and halfway generosity methods under IFRS 3 would be registered as: Mercer fractional altruism technique Resources (net) 2,170 Minority intrigue (Non Controlling Interest) (30% x 2,170) (651) Resources bought 1,519 Thought on procurement (2,145) Altruism sum 626 Full altruism Method Reasonable estimation of recognizable net resources 2,170 Minority intrigue (683) Resources dominated 1,487 Thought on Purchase (2,145) Altruism sum 658 Altruism is in undeniable reality balanced for the variety in the figure of the minority intrigue which factors in the generosity having a place with the non controlling interest. This inclination of procedure of representing non controlling interest just purposes a difference in procurement figures where under 100 percent of the element acquired is purchased. The full generosity procedure will cause an expansion in net resources investigated the announcement of budgetary position which implies that any imminent altruism hindrance will be more noteworthy. While esteeming non-controlling enthusiasm at sensible expense might be unpredictable, trying altruism debilitation might be less troublesome in full generosity, on the grounds that there is no point of summarizing generosity for auxiliary organizations which are somewhat claimed. Reasonable estimation of liabilities and Assets IFRS 3 has realized a few modifications to liabilities and resources reported in the announcement of budgetary position. The current conditions to recognize the net recognizable liabilities and resources of the substance being gained are held. Resources should be estimated at reasonable worth barring some particular things for instance annuity liabilities and conceded charge. Worldwide bookkeeping standard board has given advantageous guidelines that are probably going to prompt acknowledgment of extra impalpable resources. Buyers are obliged to recognize and record exchange licenses, customer connections and brands, in addition to different resources named impalpable. There are minor changes to existing guideline under IFRS according to possibilities.. Following the business blend date, contingent liabilities are re-esteemed at the underlying figure and the amount in current applicable standard whichever is higher. Unexpected resources are not recognized or recorded, and unforeseen liabilities are esteemed at reasonable expense. Different Matters and Issues IFRS 3 provides guidance on some exact subtleties of mixes of elements, for example, : business mixes finished with no reallocation of thought acquisitions done backward recognizing and recording resources which are immaterial the reconsideration of the buyers legally binding arrangements at the date of procurement Holding Companys Disposal or Acquisition of additional offers in Subsidiary Corresponding deal or removal of an auxiliary while as yet looking after control. . This is treated as a value trade with investors just as misfortune or addition not recoded. Relative removal of an auxiliary where control is lost. Losing controlling force on re esteeming of the staying reasonable worth held. Divergence between conveying worth and reasonable worth is treated as a misfortune or increase on the removal, recorded in the pay articulation. A short time later, utilizing universal bookkeeping standard 28 and 31 is appropriate, to the exceptional venture. Acquisition of additional offers after control of auxiliary was picked up This is treated as an exchange including value with investors, (for example, acquisition of offers in the treasury. Generosity isn't revalued in such an occasion. Revelation The buyer must uncover all applicable money related data to clients of its yearly reports to survey the budgetary result of a business blend that occurs all through the current detailing stage or ensuing to the furthest limit of the stage however before the reports are affirmed for issue. Exposures important to meet the past intention are : A delineation and furthermore the name of the buyer Date of p

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Business Communication and Isues With Brands Nokia and Apple

Question: Examine about the Business Communication and Isues With the Mobile Brands Nokia and Apple. Answer: Presentation Business correspondence is the compelling sharing of data between at least two gatherings outside or inside the association performed for the advantage for the business. Business correspondence can likewise be characterized as the death of important information inside the business. Business correspondence is a significant instrument in the business scene; nonetheless, for speaking with the customers the brand needs to have a successful advertising correspondence. It is fundamentally the capacity of the firm to speak with the clients in a viable and powerful strategy which will influence the customers lastly it will influence the prominence and gainfulness of the administration or the results of the association (Belchet al., 2013). Nokia has bombed wretchedly in the market because of its disappointment of adjusting the versatile eco framework approach. This report will address this correspondence issue of both the brands Nokia and Apple. This report will look into the correspondence i ssue of both the brands so as to discover how the successful business correspondence can assist the brand with obtaining a serious edge in the commercial center. Outline of the Report This report will plainly address both the issues with the versatile brands Nokia and Apple. In the commercial center the learning, ability and other capacity assume a significant job to limit the danger of disappointment in the market. Nonetheless, in Nokias case, the brand has lost its offer in the market and it has additionally dropped out of the serious market. In any case, if there should arise an occurrence of Apple the situation is totally extraordinary and the brand makes the promoting correspondence in an effective manner. By perusing the business duplicates of the results of the brand give an enticing duplicate so as to acquire deals. In this report, the specialist will give an itemized inquire about on correspondence research and technique alongside the investigation of the report and show how the advertising methodology of both the brands had any kind of effect in their piece of the overall industry and notoriety. Conversation and the examination of the discoveries: Examples of Communication For example, Apple has utilized its duplicate authors in a manner that while visiting the page of Apple the clients will take a gander at the features of the item. If there should be an occurrence of I telephone 5, Apple has advanced the item and its intelligibility with broken and short sentence. As indicated by pundits these sentences are a lot simpler for perusing and it pulls in the clients easily. The brand likewise utilizes the sound chomps which are commonly the precepts; along these lines it is simpler for the brand to impart the plans to the clients (Thorson Moore, 2013). Additionally Apple can be a case of incredible promoting correspondence. For I telephone 5 commercials the publicists had utilized short sentences, for example, Everything you need. Wherever you go or All-new Lightning connector. Littler, Smarter, Durable, Reversible which obviously expressed the exceptional highlights of the item. In addition the notices were fascinating and were anything but difficult to recollect for the clients. Rather than that, Nokia has neglected to keep up its correspondence estimation of the brand for the customers. It didn't place a lot of significance in the market esteem. Nokia didn't understand that the greater part of the innovation brands are advertise driven instead of item determined. For the Nokia 9000 commercials, the brand has utilized little sentences, yet it didn't make reference to any brand name or the item name in the slogan (Blakeman, 2014). Regardless of whether the item was incredible and it carried the inheritance the advertising procedure of the item couldn't play sufficient. Nokia 9000 was a significant early keen sharpen and clients could get to different offices, for example, sending and accepting messages, getting to web, and accepting and sending faxes to be an unfathomable item around then. Anyway the slogan of the item was Pocket Phone... Pocket Fax.. Obviously the slogan didn't have any item r organization name and didn't show to any of the offices that the clients could get from it. Additionally there was another energizing catch line in the promotion, It's an office in your pocket which couldn't peruse. This correspondence couldn't pass on the capability of the item to the perusers. Correspondence Research For this report, two popular brand of the portable assembling industry, Nokia and Apple have been taken. From center to late 2000s, Nokia has prospered to be the most prevailing brand of cell phone and the working programming of mobiles. A past report shows that Nokia has made around half of the cell phones that have been sold on earth and once the brand had a hold of around 65.6 percent piece of the pie globally. In contrast with that, the brand Apple came in the business out of the blue, in certainty the brand didn't sell a solitary cell phone before the year 2007. Anyway before the year's over 2013, Apple had sold around multiple times more cell phones than Nokia had. These realities show that Apple has understood that it isn't just about the cell phones; rather it is likewise about the working frameworks and building a model for the business other than assembling the cell phones. In any case, as opposed to that Nokia had just centered around the assembling some portion of the cel l phones and introduced more element rich cell phones to the shoppers, Apple had amazed the clients with a recently evolved administration based item eco framework. It can likewise be said that as far as showcasing correspondence, the Nokia versus Apple stories were about where one brand was anxious to present imaginative moves in the market, the other brand was losing its piece of the overall industry. Nokia was an association that was celebrated for its advancements however it began having serious issues during 2010s. Researchers show that it was likewise because of its first telephone model bit by bit bombed as it couldn't receive the versatile eco framework approach. Regardless of whether the brand had developed fundamental and splendid highlights in their items, it for the most part followed an item determined plan of action as opposed to being a market driven one. This methodology had step by step taken the brand to the way of disappointment. Specialized Methodology From an itemized investigation of the way to deal with the showcasing correspondence of both the brands, it very well may be said that Nokia had increased upper hands in the market by planning its own working framework programming and it could put the brand in a superior situation in the market yet the advertising correspondence was not adequate to pass on its probability to the clients. Nokia likewise committed noteworthy errors in the correspondence procedures, for example, the brand couldn't understand the test made by different brands, for example, Apple; hence it additionally couldn't understand the move to the product to the differentiator of the cell phones (Kitchen Burgmann, 2015). In this way it bombed wretchedly in the brand. It couldn't understand the market driven methodology of the brands and how it had moved from the item determined methodology. Slowly the client advertise had surrendered its working framework as both the android and Iphone framework had squashed that. On a very basic level it didn't improved its plan of action, thusly that upgraded the loss of pieces of the pie and the brand had lost its serious edge in the market. Nokia couldn't understand the other market dangers in the market by other developing brands also. In this way the brand had lost its position where Apple had brought up in the serious market. Investigation of Report After an efficient re-constructor of the brand, Apple had changed around six of the ventures, for example, energized motion pictures, PCs, music, tablets, telephone and computerized distributing. As Luxton, Reid and Mavondo (2015) watches, as the CEO of Apple Steve Jobs made an adapted rendition of the innovation and applied it in different spot for improving the regular daily existence of the clients in a veritable manner. Apple additionally had a gathering of specialists who endeavored to improve the product offering. It isn't care for Nokia needed having skilled specialists; it couldn't speak with the buyers in a powerful manner. Apple had prepared its showcasing communicators with three forcefully weaved deals techniques which had three components such a consent, position and test (Blakeman, R2014). The retail and computerized work power had tried sincerely if there is a disagreement inside the business officials. Where Apple began making new plans to speak with its buyers, Nokia had step by step lost its touch with the customer base. Apple had likewise built up an overall help item eco framework that associated the telephone, music players and the figuring of the brand. Other than that the correspondence procedures had won the hearts of the customers. Anyway Nokia had demonstrated itself to be a brand with an amazing thought of handset and just centered around selling the handsets not improving the promoting methodologies. Thusly there has consistently been a noticeable hole in the showcasing correspondence of Nokia which as progressively improved the loss of the pieces of the overall industry of Nokia. References Aversa, P., Haefliger, S., Reza, D. G. (2017). The most effective method to survey the estimation of a plan of action portfolio?.Mit Sloan Management Review. Burp, G. E., Belch, M. A., Kerr, G. F., Powell, I. (2014).Advertising: An incorporated advertising correspondence viewpoint. McGraw-Hill Education. Blakeman, R. (2014).Integrated showcasing correspondence: innovative methodology from thought to usage. Rowman Littlefield. Dilger, D. E. (2014). iPhone IP Wars: Nokia versus Apple versus HTC, Motorola Samsung. Apple Insider, Mar 27. Lady, A., Filip, I., Dragan, F. (2016). Interoperability structure for correspondence between forms running on various portable working frameworks. InIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering(Vol. 106, No. 1, p. 012007). IOP Publishing. Kitchen, P. J., Burgmann, I. (2015). Coordinated advertising correspondence: Making it work at a vital level

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Counter-Transference in Therapy

Counter-Transference in Therapy Phobias Treatment Print Counter-Transference in Therapy By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on December 23, 2017 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on November 25, 2019 Nullplus/E/Getty Images More in Phobias Treatment Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Types In psychoanalytic theory, counter-transference occurs when the therapist begins to project his own unresolved conflicts onto the client. Freud, in 1910, was the first to discuss this topic. Transference of the client’s conflicts onto the therapist is a normal part of psychodynamic therapy. However, its the therapist’s job to recognize counter-transference and do whats necessary to remain neutral. Although many now believe it to be inevitable, counter-transference can be damaging if not appropriately managed. With proper monitoring, however, some sources show that counter-transference can play a productive role in the therapeutic relationship. There are four manifestations of counter-transference: Subjective: the therapists own unresolved issues is the cause (can be harmful if not detected)Objective: the therapists reaction to his clients maladaptive behaviors is the cause (can benefit the therapeutic process)Positive: the therapist is over-supportive, trying too hard to befriend his client, disclosing too much (can damage the therapeutic relationship)Negative: the therapist acts out against uncomfortable feelings in a negative way, including being overly critical, and punishing or rejecting the client Counter-transference is especially common in novice therapists, so supervisors pay close attention and help them become more self-aware. The mental health community supports seasoned clinicians by urging them to seek peer review and supervisory guidance as needed. Rather than eliminating counter-transference altogether, the goal is to use those feelings productively. What Qualifies as Counter-Transference? Counter-transference is the therapists inappropriate reaction to his client. The therapist is reacting to an unconscious neurotic conflict within himself that the client has unearthed. How does a therapist know hes experiencing counter-transference? How do you know if your therapist is exhibiting the signs of counter-transference? The first sign is an inappropriate emotional response to the client. More specifically, when the client is an adult, common counter-transference reactions a therapist, or client, should look out for include: An unreasonable dislike for the client or excessive positive feelings about the clientBecoming overemotional and preoccupied with the clients case between sessionsDreading the therapy session or feeling uncomfortable during the session If your child is in therapy, you can also look out for other clues if you suspect trouble in the therapeutic relationship. When the client is a child, warning signs of counter-transference for the therapist include: Fantasies of rescuing the child from his situationIgnoring the childs deviant behaviorEncouraging the child to act out When It Can Be a Good in Therapy Although its important for your therapist to guard against feelings of counter-transference toward you, it can also produce good results. In a systematic review of 25 counter-transference studies, researchers found an association with positive counter-transference, such as feeling close to the client, and positive outcomes, including improvement of symptoms and a good therapeutic relationship. A Word From Verywell To drive your understanding home on counter-transference, here is an example. Mike became concerned when he developed protective feelings for a female client. In discussions with a colleague, he realized that the client reminded him of his sister, leading to counter-transference of those feelings. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs

Saturday, May 23, 2020

What Is the MCAT Scores, Registration, Exam Content

The Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) is an important tool used by medical school admissions committees. The test is intended to gauge applicants preparedness for the challenges of medical school. For many students, a sense of mystery and confusion surrounds the exam, so we created this basic overview to answer the most frequently asked questions about the MCAT. Whats on the MCAT?   The MCAT is a 230-question exam broken into four general topic areas: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems; Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems; Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior; and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills (CARS). The basic information covered in introductory university-level courses in biology, chemistry, physics, biochemistry, psychology, sociology, and pre-algebra math are tested across these four sections of the MCAT. Read More: MCAT Sections Explained How long is the MCAT?   The MCAT is a 7.5-hour long examination. Each science-related section consists of 59 questions (15 stand-alone questions, 44 passage-based questions) with 95 minutes given to finish the section. The CARS section is 53 questions (all passage-based) with 90 minutes to complete it. The actual time sitting for the exam is 6.25 hours, with the remaining time divided between two 10-minute breaks and one 30-minute break. Can I use a calculator on the MCAT?   No, calculators are not permitted on the exam. You should review basic arithmetic, including fractions, exponents, logarithms, geometry, and trigonometry to prepare for the test. What about scratch paper?   Yes, but it isnt paper. During the exam, you will be provided with a laminated noteboard booklet and a wet-erase marker. You may use the front and back of these nine graph-lined pages, but you will not be able to erase. If you need more scratch paper, additional noteboard(s) can be provided. How is the MCAT scored?   You will receive five separate scores for the MCAT exam: one from each of the four sections, and a total score. Raw scores are scaled to account for slight differences between different versions of the test. You will receive the scaled version of your scores. You will also receive a percentile ranking with each score to understand how your score compares to other test-takers. Read More: What Is a Good MCAT Score? How long are MCAT scores valid?   MCAT scores are valid for up to three years, though some programs will only accept scores that are no older than two years. When will I receive my MCAT score?   MCAT scores are released approximately one month (30-35 days) after the exam date by 5 PM EST and can be checked online. How do I prepare for the MCAT?   There are several ways to prepare for the MCAT, from self-directed review to prep programs offered by professional test prep companies. No matter the approach you choose, youll need to review the information covered in introductory university courses in biology, chemistry, physics, biochemistry, psychology, and sociology. You must also be comfortable doing basic mathematical functions without the assistance of a calculator. The layout of the exam is unique with its focus on passage-based questions and inclusion of the CARS section, so your preparations should include practicing with sample problems from the real MCAT. When should I start studying for the MCAT? Some argue that the MCAT requires only eight weeks of preparation, while others contend that three to six months of study time are necessary. The bottom line is that it depends on the student. Keep in mind that the exam is a test of content knowledge and critical thinking skills. First, youll need to complete at least a cursory review of the materials covered by the MCAT, which can take two to four months. After that, youll need a minimum of eight weeks practicing sample MCAT problems and taking practice exams, extending the necessary prep time into the three- to six-month range. Naturally, the more material you need to review, the more time youll need to devote to test prep. Read More: MCAT Questions of the Day How long should I study for the MCAT? The exact answer varies from student to student. In general, if you are completing eight weeks . of intensive prep, youll need to spend 15-30 hours per week for a total of 120-240 hours of study time. The average student will need about 200-300 hours of review time before sitting for the exam. When should I take the MCAT? The MCAT is offered several times per month from January to September. You can take the MCAT as early as the end of your sophomore year. Most pre-med students take the MCAT near the end of their junior year. This means you must carefully plan to have your coursework finished well in advance of the expected test date in order to adequately prepare for the test. Remember that poor MCAT scores do not disappear, and medical schools will be able to see the score from every attempt. Make sure you are fully prepared before even thinking of taking the MCAT. If you consistently scoring about a 510 or higher on practice exams, youre likely ready for the real deal. Read More: MCAT Test Dates and Score Release Dates How much does the MCAT cost?   Currently, the MCAT costs $320, but the cost increases to $375 if scheduled within a week of the exam date. For students who are eligible for the fee assistance program, the cost is reduced to $130 ($175 for later registration). There is an additional $115 fee for international students (except residents of Canada, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Dates fill up quickly, so you should register as soon as you have your test prep planned. Read More: MCAT Costs and Fee Assistance Program How do I register for the MCAT? MCAT registration is processed through the AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges), and you will need to create an account with them in order to register. How many times can I take the MCAT?   Taking the MCAT multiple times may not reflect well on medical school applications. However, you can take the MCAT up to three times during one calendar year or four times over a two-year period. You may only take the MCAT a maximum of seven times in a lifetime.   Medical schools take several factors into account when considering your application: your transcript, letters of recommendation, and of course, your medical college admissions test, or MCAT, score.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Walmart s Success Of The Global Market - 1332 Words

Walmart s Success in the Global Market In terms of ‘Identify Basic Appeal’ which concerns suitability of climate, restriction on certain items, access to material, and others – Walmart has used this step of the market screening process for much of its international business ventures (Wild and Wild, 2013, p.301). For instance, in Brazil the tropical temperature (which normally does not fall below 20 °C throughout the year) – has apparently influenced the type of apparel that the company sells in its stores (World Travel Guide, 2016; Walmart, 2016). Because, within the stores of Walmart in Brazil, one can find clothing made from fabric - as in, cotton and linen, which are material suited for the warmer weather found in Brazil (Walmart, 2016). Whereas, for a country like Canada – within Walmart stores, clothing can be found that are tailored for each of the four seasons, thus one will be able to find winter jackets and shorts in line with the seasons that they are most suited for. As for r estricted items, in Ontario (Canada), since the retailing of liquor presently falls under the purview of the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) - one would not find alcohol base beverages on the shelves of Walmart or being marketed by the entity (Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario, 2010). However, on the websites of Walmart in the US, there are several options available as it relates to the purchase of alcoholic beverages (Walmart, 2016). As it relates to access to material, whenShow MoreRelatedWalmart International Segment Of Walmart1553 Words   |  7 PagesWalmart International segment First, Walmart is the largest retailer in United State of America and also Walmart is the largest retailer in the world. Wal mart has branches in all states in US., and more than 11,000 stores in 28 countries as 65 banners that people know. At first Walmart established the first international store in Mexico City, Mexico in 1991, that the organization uses the name Walmart for operating in the United States and Canada. Walmart has an employee 2.2 million employees aroundRead MoreWalmart s Strategy Fit The Market Environment920 Words   |  4 PagesBackground: Walmart begun to explore the global markets in early 1990s. Its first expansion was in Mexico, where Walmart ran its retail business as joint venture with the largest retailer Cifra S.A. in Mexico. The Walmart’s format proved to be quite successful in Mexico. Followed by year 1994, Walmart entered Canada market by acquisition strategy. In 1996, Walmart penetrate China by opening Sam’s Club and supercenter in Shenzhen, and acquisition of hypermarket chain called Trust-Mart in 2007. Walmart’sRead MoreWalmart s Competitive Advantage Strategy754 Words   |  4 PagesAssessment of Walmart five force models: Walmart is one of Target Corporation s closest rival which needs to address the pressure imposed by the external environment factors. Walmart has a global presence and broader market compares to Target. According to Panmore Institute (2015), Walmart lacks in negotiating term with buyers and suppliers that need a long-term strategy for withstanding intense competi tion. Further, it needs to address withstanding a substitute from online retailers, the substitutionRead MoreWalmart : A Efficient Supply Chain System924 Words   |  4 PagesBy 1990, Walmart had opened stores in 32 states and became the nation s #1 retailer in both total sales and profit (http://corporate.walmart.com/our-story/our-history). Walmart’s business has largely matured. Besides its large scale in consumer product purchasing, Walmart also holds four key sources that give it a competitive advantage. First, Walmart has a highly advanced and efficient supply chain system. Walmart built a vendor-managed inventory system to manage its warehouses and its distributionRead MoreWal Mart Worldwide Development Procedures Essay1695 Words   |  7 PagesWalmart is a large retailer in over 26 countries outside of the United States. (Berfield, 2013) After opening 16 stores in the South Korea market, in 2006 Walmart was banned from South Korea due to their poor marketing stra tegies. (Berfield, 2013) The U.S based company did not change the way they would approach the Korean market to assure that their culture would be included within the retail stores. Walmart stuck with their American way of marketing their products to the Korean consumers (BerfieldRead MoreGlobalization of Wal-Mart1177 Words   |  5 PagesDerek Moore 9/13/12 GEB3356, Omanwa Minicase: â€Å"The globalization of Walmart† As the world’s largest retail store in the world, Walmart wants to be in every market that they can be prosperous in. They know they rule the United States market, so why not try to expand overseas and dominate those markets as well. Now that they have reached limits on expansion here in the U.S., the next step was to test the water in other nations. As they began to go international, there were many critics saying theyRead MoreSustainability and Walmart1602 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Walmart Stores, Inc. Strategic Initiative Preston Burrell, Sue Ford, Ketia Francois, Chris Hiniker, George Lance FIN370 July 29, 2013 Laura Haase Walmart’s Strategic Initiative Strategic planning is a goal of most if not all companies that exist. Some may use this form of planning on a small scale and meet about things such as improving satisfaction ratings or improving the company’s website. Others meet about larger goals that can change and improve the image and brandingRead MoreCase Study : The Walmartization Of America1416 Words   |  6 PagesThe Walmartization of America Introduction Walmart is the world’s largest retailer with more than 4,300 stores in the United States and over 8,000 worldwide, with global scales topping $400 billion in 2009. It plays a vital role in the U.S economy. Walmart success includes: low–wage labor, Limited health benefits, and leveraging of government subsidies. The company s controlling family, the Walton’s, is the richest family in America, with nearly $150 billion in wealth. That is more than the totalRead MoreWalmart : The World s Second Largest Public Corporation1141 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to Fortune Global 500 list in 2013, Walmart is the world’s second largest public corporation in world. By 2012, the company employs 2.2 million associates worldwide and serves 200 million customers each week at more than 10,000 stores in 27 countries (History Timeline, 2013). David Glass, the CEO of Walmart, states out the two objectives that they focus on: I. Providing the customers what they want, when they want it, all at a value. II. Treating each other as we would hope to be treatedRead MoreAnalysis And Evaluation Of Walmart1158 Words   |  5 PagesI. BACKGROUND Walmart the supercenter giant was founded in Rogers, Arkansas in 1962(Walmart). Founded by Sam Walton with his visionary leadership and along with his associates they focused on helping consumers and communities to save money and live better (Walmart). The successful retail giant has been known to dominate markets and operate on global efficiencies. Walmart operates in 27 countries with more than 11,000 stores serving more than 2 million consumers worldwide (Walmart). The economic satisfaction

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Twilight Saga 4 Breaking Dawn 31. Talented Free Essays

string(77) " product of good preparation – focus and attitude,he’d declared\." â€Å"What is the werewolves’ part in this?† Tanya asked then, eyeing Jacob. Jacob spoke before Edward could answer. â€Å"If the Volturi won’t stop to listen about Nessie, I mean Renesmee,† he corrected himself, remembering that Tanya would not understand his stupid nickname, â€Å"we will stop them. We will write a custom essay sample on The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 31. Talented or any similar topic only for you Order Now † â€Å"Very brave, child, but that would be impossible for more experienced fighters than you are.† â€Å"You don’t know what we can do.† Tanya shrugged. â€Å"It is your own life, certainly, to spend as you choose.† Jacob’s eyes flickered to Renesmee – still in Carmen’s arms with Kate hovering over them – and it was easy to read the longing in them. â€Å"She is special, that little one,† Tanya mused. â€Å"Hard to resist.† â€Å"A very talented family,† Eleazar murmured as he paced. His tempo was increasing; he flashed from the door to Carmen and back again every second. â€Å"A mind reader for a father, a shield for a mother, and then whatever magic this extraordinary child has bewitched us with. I wonder if there is a name for what she does, or if it is the norm for a vampire hybrid. As if such a thing could ever be considered normal! A vampire hybrid, indeed!† â€Å"Excuse me,† Edward said in a stunned voice. He reached out and caught Eleazar’s shoulder as he was about to turn again for the door. â€Å"What did you just call my wife?† Eleazar looked at Edward curiously, his manic pacing forgotten for the moment. â€Å"A shield, I think. She’s blocking me now, so I can’t be sure.† I stared at Eleazar, my brows furrowing in confusion. Shield? What did he mean about my blocking him? I was standing right here beside him, not defensive in any way. â€Å"A shield?† Edward repeated, bewildered. â€Å"Come now, Edward! If I can’t get a read on her, I doubt you can, either. Can you hear her thoughts right now?† Eleazar asked. â€Å"No,† Edward murmured. â€Å"But I’ve never been able to do that. Even when she was human.† â€Å"Never?† Eleazar blinked. â€Å"Interesting. That would indicate a rather powerful latent talent, if it was manifesting so clearly even before the transformation. I can’t feel a way through her shield to get a sense of it at all. Yet she must be raw still – she’s only a few months old.† The look he gave Edward now was almost exasperated. â€Å"And apparently completely unaware of what she’s doing. Totally unconscious. Ironic. Aro sent me all over the world searching for such anomalies, and you simply stumble across it by accident and don’t even realize what you have.† Eleazar shook his head in disbelief. I frowned. â€Å"What are you talking about? How can I be a shield? What does that even mean?† All I could picture in my head was a ridiculous medieval suit of armor. Eleazar leaned his head to one side as he examined me. â€Å"I suppose we were overly formal about it in the guard. In truth, categorizing talents is a subjective, haphazard business; every talent is unique, never exactly the same thing twice. But you, Bella, are fairly easy to classify. Talents that are purely defensive, that protect some aspect of the bearer, are always called shields. Have you ever tested your abilities? Blocked anyone besides me and your mate?† It took me few seconds, despite how quickly my new brain worked, to organize my answer. â€Å"It only works with certain things,† I told him. â€Å"My head is sort of†¦ private. But it doesn’t stop Jasper from being able to mess with my mood or Alice from seeing my future.† â€Å"Purely a mental defense.† Eleazar nodded to himself. â€Å"Limited, but strong.† â€Å"Aro couldn’t hear her,† Edward interjected. â€Å"Though she was human when they met.† Eleazar’s eyes widened. â€Å"Jane tried to hurt me, but she couldn’t,† I said. â€Å"Edward thinks Demetri can’t find me, and that Alec can’t bother me, either. Is that good?† Eleazar, still gaping, nodded. â€Å"Quite.† â€Å"A shield!† Edward said, deep satisfaction saturating his tone. â€Å"I never thought of it that way. The only one I’ve ever met before was Renata, and what she did was so different.† Eleazar had recovered slightly. â€Å"Yes, no talent ever manifests in precisely the same way, because no one ever thinks in exactly the same way.† â€Å"Who’s Renata? What does she do?† I asked. Renesmee was interested, too, leaning away from Carmen so that she could see around Kate. â€Å"Renata is Aro’s personal bodyguard,† Eleazar told me. â€Å"A very practical kind of shield, and a very strong one.† I vaguely remembered a small crowd of vampires hovering close to Aro in his macabre tower, some male, some female. I couldn’t remember the women’s faces in the uncomfortable, terrifying memory. One must have been Renata. â€Å"I wonder†¦,† Eleazar mused. â€Å"You see, Renata is a powerful shield against a physical attack. If someone approaches her – or Aro, as she is always close beside him in a hostile situation – they find themselves†¦ diverted. There’s a force around her that repels, though it’s almost unnoticeable. You simply find yourself going a different direction than you planned, with a confused memory as to why you wanted to go that other way in the first place. She can project her shield several meters out from herself. She also protects Caius and Marcus, too, when they have a need, but Aro is her priority. â€Å"What she does isn’t actually physical, though. Like the vast majority of our gifts, it takes place inside the mind. If she tried to keep you back, I wonder who would win?† He shook his head. â€Å"I’ve never heard of Aro’s or Jane’s gifts being thwarted.† â€Å"Momma, you’re special,† Renesmee told me without any surprise, like she was commenting on the color of my clothes. I felt disoriented. Didn’t I already know my gift? I had my super-self-control that had allowed me to skip right over the horrifying newborn year. Vampires only had one extra ability at most, right? Or had Edward been correct in the beginning? Before Carlisle had suggested that my self-control could be something beyond the natural, Edward had thought my restraint was just a product of good preparation – focus and attitude,he’d declared. You read "The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 31. Talented" in category "Essay examples" Which one had been right? Was there more I could do? A name and a category for what I was? â€Å"Can you project?† Kate asked interestedly. â€Å"Project?† I asked. â€Å"Push it out from yourself,† Kate explained. â€Å"Shield someone besides yourself.† â€Å"I don’t know. I’ve never tried. I didn’t know I should do that.† â€Å"Oh, you might not be able to,† Kate said quickly. â€Å"Heavens knows I’ve been working on it for centuries and the best I can do is run a current over my skin.† I stared at her, mystified. â€Å"Kate’s got an offensive skill,† Edward said. â€Å"Sort of like Jane.† I flinched away from Kate automatically, and she laughed. â€Å"I’m not sadistic about it,† she assured me. â€Å"It’s just something that comes in handy during a fight.† Kate’s words were sinking in, beginning to make connections in my mind. Shield someone besides yourself she’d said. As if there were some way for me to include another person in my strange, quirky silent head. I remembered Edward cringing on the ancient stones of the Volturi castle turret. Though this was a human memory, it was sharper, more painful than most of the others – like it had been branded into the tissues of my brain. What if I could stop that from happening ever again? What if I could protect him? Protect Renesmee? What if there was even the faintest glimmer of a possibility that I could shield them, too? â€Å"You have to teach me what to do!† I insisted, unthinkingly grabbing Kate’s arm. â€Å"You have to show me how!† Kate winced at my grip. â€Å"Maybe – if you stop trying to crush my radius.† â€Å"Oops! Sorry!† â€Å"You’re shielding, all right,† Kate said. â€Å"That move should have about shocked your arm off. You didn’t feel anything just now?† â€Å"That wasn’t really necessary, Kate. She didn’t mean any harm,† Edward muttered under his breath. Neither of us paid attention to him. â€Å"No, I didn’t feel anything. Were you doing your electric current thing?† â€Å"I was. Hmm. I’ve never met anyone who couldn’t feel it, immortal or otherwise.† â€Å"You said you project it? On your skin?† Kate nodded. â€Å"It used to be just in my palms. Kind of like Aro.† â€Å"Or Renesmee,† Edward interjected. â€Å"But after a lot of practice, I can radiate the current all over my body. It’s a good defense. Anyone who tries to touch me drops like a human that’s been Tasered. It only downs him for a second, but that’s long enough.† I was only half-listening to Kate, my thoughts racing around the idea that I might be able to protect my little family if I could just learn fast enough. I wished fervently that I might be good at this projecting thing, too, like I was somehow mysteriously good at all the other aspects of being a vampire. My human life had not prepared me for things that came naturally, and I couldn’t make myself trust this aptitude to last. It felt like I had never wanted anything so badly before this; to be able to protect what I loved. Because I was so preoccupied, I didn’t notice the silent exchange going on between Edward and Eleazar until it became a spoken conversation. â€Å"Can you think of even one exception, though?† Edward asked. I looked over to make sense of his comment and realized that everyone else was already staring at the two men. They were leaning toward each other intently, Edward’s expression tight with suspicion, Eleazar’s unhappy and reluctant. â€Å"I don’t want to think of them that way,† Eleazar said through his teeth. I was surprised at the sudden change in the atmosphere. â€Å"If you’re right – ,† Eleazar began again. Edward cut him off. â€Å"The thought was yours, not mine.† â€Å"If I’m right†¦ I can’t even grasp what that would mean. It would change everything about the world we’ve created. It would change the meaning of my life. What I have been a part of.† â€Å"Your intentions were always the best, Eleazar.† â€Å"Would that even matter? What have I done? How many lives †¦Ã¢â‚¬  Tanya put her hand on Eleazar’s shoulder in a comforting gesture. â€Å"What did we miss, my friend? I want to know so that I can argue with these thoughts. You’ve never done anything worth castigating yourself this way.† â€Å"Oh, haven’t I?† Eleazar muttered. Then he shrugged out from under her hand and began his pacing again, faster even than before. Tanya watched him for half a second and then focused on Edward. â€Å"Explain.† Edward nodded, his tense eyes following Eleazar as he spoke. â€Å"He was trying to understand why so many of the Volturi would come to punish us. It’s not the way they do things. Certainly, we are the biggest mature coven they’ve dealt with, but in the past other covens have joined to protect themselves, and they never presented much of a challenge despite their numbers. We are more closely bonded, and that’s a factor, but not a huge one. â€Å"He was remembering other times that covens have been punished, for one thing or the other, and a pattern occurred to him. It was a pattern that the rest of the guard would never have noticed, since Eleazar was the one passing the pertinent intelligence privately to Aro. A pattern that only repeated every other century or so.† â€Å"What was this pattern?† Carmen asked, watching Eleazar as Edward was. â€Å"Aro does not often personally attend a punishing expedition,† Edward said. â€Å"But in the past, when Aro wanted something in particular, it was never long before evidence turned up proving that this coven or that coven had committed some unpardonable crime. The ancients would decide to go along to watch the guard administer justice. And then, once the coven was all but destroyed, Aro would grant a pardon to one member whose thoughts, he would claim, were particularly repentant. Always, it would turn out that this vampire had the gift Aro had admired. Always, this person was given a place with the guard. The gifted vampire was won over quickly, always so grateful for the honor. There were no exceptions.† â€Å"It must be a heady thing to be chosen,† Kate suggested. â€Å"Ha!† Eleazar snarled, still in motion. â€Å"There is one among the guard,† Edward said, explaining Eleazar’s angry reaction. â€Å"Her name is Chelsea. She has influence over the emotional ties between people. She can both loosen and secure these ties. She could make someone feel bonded to the Volturi, to want to belong, to want to please them___† Eleazar came to an abrupt halt. â€Å"We all understood why Chelsea was important. In a fight, if we could separate allegiances between allied covens, we could defeat them that much more easily. If we could distance the innocent members of a coven emotionally from the guilty, justice could be done without unnecessary brutality – the guilty could be punished without interference, and the innocent could be spared. Otherwise, it was impossible to keep the coven from fighting as a whole. So Chelsea would break the ties that bound them together. It seemed a great kindness to me, evidence of Aro’s mercy. I did suspect that Chelsea kept our own band more tightly knit, but that, too, was a good thing. It made us more effective. It helped us coexist more easily.† This clarified old memories for me. It had not made sense to me before how the guard obeyed their masters so gladly, with almost lover-like devotion. â€Å"How strong is her gift?† Tanya asked with an edge to her voice. Her gaze quickly touched on each member of her family. Eleazar shrugged. â€Å"I was able to leave with Carmen.† And then he shook his head. â€Å"But anything weaker than the bond between partners is in danger. In a normal coven, at least. Those are weaker bonds than those in our family, though. Abstaining from human blood makes us more civilized – lets us form true bonds of love. I doubt she could turn our allegiances, Tanya.† Tanya nodded, seeming reassured, while Eleazar continued with his analysis. â€Å"I could only think that the reason Aro had decided to come himself, to bring so many with him, is because his goal is not punishment but acquisition,† Eleazar said. â€Å"He needs to be there to control the situation. But he needs the entire guard for protection from such a large, gifted coven. On the other hand, that leaves the other ancients unprotected in Volterra. Too risky – someone might try to take advantage. So they all come together. How else could he be sure to preserve the gifts that he wants? He must want them very badly,† Eleazar mused. Edward’s voice was low as a breath. â€Å"From what I saw of his thoughts last spring, Aro’s never wanted anything more than he wants Alice.† I felt my mouth fall open, remembering the nightmarish pictures I had imagined long ago: Edward and Alice in black cloaks with bloodred eyes, their faces cold and remote as they stood close as shadows, Aro’s hands on theirs†¦. Had Alice seen this more recently? Had she seen Chelsea trying to strip away her love for us, to bind her to Aro and Caius and Marcus? â€Å"Is that why Alice left?† I asked, my voice breaking on her name. Edward put his hand against my cheek. â€Å"I think it must be. To keep Aro from gaining the thing he wants most of all. To keep her power out of his hands.† I heard Tanya and Kate murmuring in disturbed voices and remembered that they hadn’t known about Alice. â€Å"He wants you, too,† I whispered. Edward shrugged, his face suddenly a little too composed. â€Å"Not nearly as much. I can’t really give him anything more than he already has. And of course that’s dependent on his finding a way to force me to do his will. He knows me, and he knows how unlikely that is.† He raised one eyebrow sardonically. Eleazar frowned at Edward’s nonchalance. â€Å"He also knows your weaknesses,† Eleazar pointed out, and then he looked at me. â€Å"It’s nothing we need to discuss now,† Edward said quickly. Eleazar ignored the hint and continued. â€Å"He probably wants your mate, too, regardless. He must have been intrigued by a talent that could defy him in its human incarnation.† Edward was uncomfortable with this topic. I didn’t like it, either. If Aro wanted me to do something – anything – all he had to do was threaten Edward and I would comply. And vice versa. Was death the lesser concern? Was it really capture we should fear? Edward changed the subject. â€Å"I think the Volturi were waiting for this – for some pretext. They couldn’t know what form their excuse would come in, but the plan was already in place for when it did come. That’s why Alice saw their decision before Irina triggered it. The decision was already made, just waiting for the pretense of a justification.† â€Å"If the Volturi are abusing the trust all immortals have placed in them†¦,† Carmen murmured. â€Å"Does it matter?† Eleazar asked. â€Å"Who would believe it? And even if others could be convinced that the Volturi are exploiting their power, how would it make any difference? No one can stand against them.† â€Å"Though some of us are apparently insane enough to try,† Kate muttered. Edward shook his head. â€Å"You’re only here to witness, Kate. Whatever Aro’s goal, I don’t think he’s ready to tarnish the Volturi’s reputation for it. If we can take away his argument against us, he’ll be forced to leave us in peace.† â€Å"Of course,† Tanya murmured. No one looked convinced. For a few long minutes, nobody said anything. Then Iheard the sound of tires turning off the highway pavement onto the Cullens’ dirt drive. â€Å"Oh crap, Charlie,† I muttered. â€Å"Maybe the Denalis could hang out upstairs until – â€Å" â€Å"No,† Edward said in a distant voice. His eyes were far away, staring blankly at the door. â€Å"It’s not your father.† His gaze focused on me. â€Å"Alice sent Peter and Charlotte, afterall. Time to get ready for the next round.† How to cite The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 31. Talented, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

EXTENDED Essay Example For Students

EXTENDED Essay Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking: divergent or convergent to western establishments?By Clement NgSCHOOL CODE: 1206 (Sha Tin College)CANDIDATE CODE: MAY 2003 ? 1206 038AbstractThe research question of this extended essay came across at a very early stage in my life. Having been born and developed from a family with all its members being University instructors and professors, I was often involved in arguments related to the lack of critical thinking in Asian cultures. As I got older, having had the chance to emerge in different cultures, I started to develop my own viewpoints and answers. I started to wonder about the truth between the real differences of Asian and Western philosophies of critical thinking. This extended essay, intended to be a research and investigation, bearing the title Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking: divergent or convergent to Western establishments? is in fact however merely just a summary of my viewpoints and answers which I have developed through out the years. In the first section of the essay, Logical Tradition in India and China I will attempt to give evidence of critical thinking in two Asian cultures that I have chosen; namely India and China. In India, I will argue that critical thinking is clearly visible in historical texts such as the Caraka and Nyayasutra. This is presented as the well-known five-membered argument, a system of logical deduction, similar to the Aristotelian syllogism found in the west. In China I would focus mainly on the two schools of logical thought, the Mohists and the Logicians. For the Mohists I would argue that critical thinking is a vital element in the building of what they call mental models. For the Logicians, I would study deeply the writings of Hui Shih and Kungsun Lung, I would show that in fact both of them developed systems of logical and paradoxical thinking that could well serve as the foundations of modern science. If critical thinking is clearly presentable in these Asian cultures then why are there still concerns for introducing it to them? This is the question I intend to answer in the latter section Needhams Grand Question and Fullers Interpretation. During this section, I would also show that discussions of modern science seem to enable us to see how the tradition of critical thinking arose and how they were promoted or discouraged. I would cover how Asian historical, economic, social and cultural factors have a big influence on their development of critical thinking. Lastly I would show how the prioritization of a civilization has a devastating effect on deciding the future road they intend to walk. In conclusion, I would argue that since the philosophy of a culture is but an abstract and theoretical expression and justification of the cultures decision to choose one set of priorities over another, Asian philosophy and critical thinking are neither necessarily divergent nor necessarily convergent to western establishments. ContentsIntroduction 4Logical Tradition in India and China 4Needhams Grand Question and Fullers Interpretation 7Asian Philosophy and Critical Thinking: Divergence or Convergence? 8Conclusion 9Bibliography 10References 11Asian Philosophies of Critical Thinking: divergent or convergent to western establishments?By Clement NgIntroductionIt is widely recognized nowadays that critical thinking has become a necessary ingredient in all levels of education. Educators and educational policy makers agree that one of the desirable goals of education is that students are able to think critically. Throughout the past few years, many have felt the need to consider critical thinking more seriously in educational programs. At the moment several different acts are being considered around the world by various factors and agencies. The core of these proposed acts is the idea that the students are able to think critically and independently. Although there are widespread disagreements on what critical th inking actually is, there is an agreement that it has become very important in the world overwhelmed by huge amounts of information. Some Western educators who teach at schools or universities in a number of Asian countries have voiced their difficulties and problems they encounter while trying to teach critical thinking and other related skills to Asian students. Bruce Davidson (1998) argues that a set of Japanese cultural factors act as a kind of barrier against teaching critical thinking to students. Atkinson (1999) goes so far as to argue that critical thinking is culturally specific, and is a part of the social practices of the West having no place within Asian cultures, which do not adopt such practices. What these educators have in common is the feeling that some elements in Asian cultures do prevent the full realization of critical thinking skills in the students. Most of these elements perceived by Western educators in Asia are quite well knownthe beliefs that teachers are superior and always right, that knowledge is not to be made here and now, but exists eternally, so to speak, to be handed down by teac hers, that social harmony is to be preferred rather than asking probing questionsto mention just a few. Is critical thinking really culture specific? Can the traditional belief systems of Asia respond to the challenge of the modern world while still retaining their distinctive identities? Are Asian philosophy and critical thinking necessary divergent or possibly convergent? These are very significant question not just for Asian cultures, but for understanding how cultures of the world respond to globalization. In addition the question also has a bearing on the problematic relation between critical thinking and the cultural environment in which it happens to be embedded. In this essay, I attempt to argue that critical thinking is not necessarily incompatible with Asian traditional belief systems. In fact I will show that both India and China do have their own indigenous traditions of logical and argumentative thinking; it is just because of certain barriers that prevent them from further developing such establishments. I will further try to show that these traditions can and should be reexamined, reinterpreted and adapted to the contemporary situation. By doing this I would seek acknowledgement to the essay question and would provide an answer to the Western educators who have found no such critical traditions in the East. Logical Tradition in India and ChinaIt is widely known that India had a highly advanced logical tradition, spanning more than two thousand years. The successes of Indian mathematicians and computer programmers are perhaps due to the fact that logic and critical thinking have been integral to the Indian way of thinking since time immemorial. Such integration can also be witnessed in the fondness of Indians for talking and debating. Tscherbatsky (1962: 31-34) tells us that in the times of Dignaga and Dharmakirti, two of the greatest Buddhist logicians, the fate of entire monasteries depended on public debates. According to Tscherbatsky, Dignaga won his fame and royal support through his defeat of the brahmin Sudurjaya at Nalanda Monastery (31-34). In another vein, Matilal (1990: 1-8) argues that the Indian logical tradition is entirely home grown, since there is no evidence of India being influenced by Aristotelian ideas. Matilal also shows that many topics, which are of interest by contemporary logicians and philosophers today, were discussed and researched into with sophistication by Indian scholars. Such topics include theory of inference, empty names, reference and existence, perception, knowledge of the external world, substance, causality, and many others (Matilal 1990). Moreover, Tscherbatskys (1962) work, dealing mainly with the works of Dignaga and Dharmakirti illustrates that India is one of the great logical and philosophical civilizations of the world. There are a number of topics that both traditions discovered independently of each other. For example, Matilal notes that the counterpart of the Aristotelian syllogism is the five-membered argument found in such texts as Caraka and Nyayasutra. Instead of the three propositions found in Aristotelian syllogism, the five-membered argument consists of five propositions, the first of which is the conclusion, and the last repeating what is already stated in the first. The remaining three propositions in between are the premises. Here is one example of the five-membered argument cited by Matilal (1990: 5):1. There is fire on this mountain. 2. For, there is smoke there. 3. Smoke goes with fire always (or, in all cases, or in all places): witness, kitchen. 4. This is also a case of smoke. 5. Therefore, there is fire there (on the mountain). Logicians will immediately be able to reconstruct this argument in the familiar Aristotelian form as follows:The place on the mountain is a place where there is smoke. A place where there is smoke is a place where there is fire. Therefore, the place on the mountain is a place where there is fire. Matilal, however, notes that there is at least some dissimilarity between the Indian and the Aristotelian argument forms presented here. For instance, he says that the conclusion of the Indian argument form is in the form of ?singular proposition, (i.e., modified by demonstratives like ?this or ?that) whereas that of the Aristotelian syllogism is either universal or particular (i.e., modified by quantifiers like ?all or ?some). But the dissimilarity here could be amended, as indexicals (terms like ?this or ?that which relies on the context of utterance for their full meaning) could be dispensed with by supplying the required information on the context in which they are uttered. Thus it could be safely stated that the Indian logical tradition fully comprehended the essence, so to speak, of logic, which is the concept of validity and the basic valid argument form. Another of the worlds great civilizations, China, also had its own indigenous and independent logical tradition. Two of Chinas logical schools of thought are the Mohists and the Logicians. The former was founded by Mo Ti, who lived between 479 to 381 B.C., during the Warring States period of Chinese history (Ronan 1978: 114). Among the typical Chinese scholars the Mohists are better known for their doctrine of universal love and the condemnation of offensive war rather than their interests and achievements in the physical sciences. In the latter Needham reports that the Mohists went very far towards realizing that the thought system was in fact a prerequisite for modern science. Most significantly, the Mohists appeared to be in grasp of the concepts of deduction and induction. They viewed the former as a way of thinking which follows a ?mental model, which guarantees that whoever follows it will never fail to be right in their thinking. Here is an example of reasoning based on follow ing such mental model:Model thinking consists in following the methods . What are followed in model-thinking are the methods. Therefore if the methods are truly followed by the model-thinking , the reasoning will be correct. But if the methods are not truly followed by the model-thinking, the reasoning will be wrong (Ronan 1978: 119). On the other hand, the Mohists also recognized the value of ?extension which is a kind of reasoning from the known examples and ?extend it to unknown cases similar to them:Extension is considering that that which one has not yet received is identical with those which one has already received, and admitting it (Ronan 1978: 119). The Civil Rights Movement Essay1034Asian Philosophy and Critical Thinking: Divergence or Convergence?Hence, the values typically associated with Asian culture such as social harmony and deference to the elders and teachers are thus seen as consequences of the cultures deciding to put a certain set of priorities above others. Social harmony was instrumental in bringing about the cultural unity that is the most distinctive characteristic of Chinese culture. It is valued above most other types of values because it goes hand in hand with social stability, whose alternative is perceived as chaos and general burden of social structure. The prioritization of social harmony can also be seen in other Asian cultures such as the Thai one, and results in Thais trying as far as they possibly can to avoid open conflicts and disagreements. In the case of China, since all the elements that could bring about the rise of modern science were in place, it is quite clear that the Chinese culture actual ly chose not to go along the path taken by the Europeans. The decision made by a culture to adopt a particular system of beliefs and practices certainly did not happen suddenly, as if at one particular moment of history, members of a culture had a meeting and declared their cultures adoption of this or that set. The decision occurred gradually throughout the historical development of a culture, and can be seen in China adopting Confucianism rather than the more materialistic and scientifically inclined Taoism and Mohism, and in India adopting the more mystical doctrine emphasizing the role of meditation and private insights rather than publicly demonstrable methods of knowing. I think that reasons for such decision are enormously complicated, but it is hardly conceivable that China was somehow destined to lag behind Europe in the science race due to factors they could not control. This may be taken to show that critical thinking and Asian thought are divergent. If the Asian cultures chose not to go along the path where critical thinking is one milestone, then both do not seem to go with each other, and Atkinson may be vindicated when he argues that critical thinking is a part of Western culture only. If the Asian cultures prioritize sets of values which are incompatible with critical thinking, and if they freely chose those sets over the set adopted by Europeans for whatever reasons, then it appears that critical thinking would belong to European culture only, and to adopt it to Asian cultures would be the same as to importing foreign ideas and practices to alien lands. Thus, Atkinsons argument seems to fit well with the under determinist position. This line of reasoning, however, would be valid only if a culture decided as its own set of priorities at one time will always remain so for all other times. If the Thai culture, for example, once decided that social harmony should take precedence over critical argumentation and open debates, then critical thinking practices would be forever alien to them. But that is surely a very unreasonable position to take. Cultures, like humans, often make decisions that later are amended or revoked with new decisions made; when things are not the same any longer. Decisions to prioritize one set of values over another are not etched in stone, but even so the stone can be broken down or else taken to a museum or a pedestal where it loses its real meaning. Decisions at one time reflect the circumstances normal at that particular time, and to stick onto past decisions with no plan of adapting or making new decisions in response to changing circumstances would make the culture frozen and unable to participate. Opting not to correct their past decisions, a culture would in effect be telling the world that it is constructing a wall around itself, giving nothing to the world and receiving nothing. However, sociological and economic conditions of the current world do not permit such a scenario from happening. Cultures need to change themselves, not merely to survive, but to prosper and to permit better lives for their members. Consequently, Asian cultures and critical thinking are divergent only if the former opt not to correct their decisions. But since we are talking only about decisions, then it is not difficult at all to suggest that cultures would make new decisions in response to changing times. Doing so would make the two more convergent. Hence, the divergence and convergence, after all, depend on what decisions a culture makes. There is nothing necessarily attached to a cultures path along history that makes it essentially divergent or convergent from the modern critical thinking tradition, or from any tradition for that matter. Since the philosophy of a culture is but an abstract and theoretical expression and justification of the cultures decision to choose one set of priorities over another, Asian philosophy and critical thinking are neither necessarily divergent nor necessarily convergent. ConclusionAny attempt to introduce, or we should say to bring back critical thinking practices to the cultures of Asia would, therefore, begin within the cultures themselves. This is in line with the under determinist idea that each culture has its own peculiar development path which is not necessarily shared with others. The mission of spreading the truth of one culture to another is a misplaced. One that apart from sounding patronizing, is something the current morality cannot accept. Thus the first step in such an attempt must consist of a series of arguments designed to show to most members of the culture where critical thinking is to be introduced, that critical thinking is really good. However to do that would at least require large amounts of explanations, something that is definitely out of scope of this present essay. Besides, to argue that critical thinking is actually a good thing to have is difficult, because it may run counter to the deeply established belief that critic al thinking is just a label for the confrontational mode of life that the culture finds unpleasant and difficult to accept. Though the task is difficult, I believe that it is unavoidable. As an insider of my own Chinese cultural tradition, I am trying to convince the members of my culture of the value of critical thinking and its important role in educating citizens for the increasingly globalized world of today and tomorrow. An important part of my argument for combining critical thinking and its belief systems to the Chinese culture is the idea that people should view the elements of their culture which could present the most serious obstacles to critical thinking as benign fiction. That is, elements such as respect of the elders and the belief in social ranking and so on should be viewed in the same way as a modern person views his or her own traditional customs and ceremonies. One is in a sense a part of the culture where the ceremonies happen, but in another sense detached from it. This is because he knows himself only to serve a certain function in the culture, and in addition, knowledge of other cu ltures enables further detachment from his own customs and ceremonies. Such an argument would naturally require a lot more space and time than is available here. What I hope to have accomplished in this essay, however, is much more modest. It is, as we have seen, an argument that Asian philosophy and Asian thought in general do not necessarily conflict with critical thinking and its presuppositions. Furthermore, it is the influential making of decisions throughout the history of each culture itself, which, I believe, is flexible and adaptive enough to effect important changes for the future. 1065BibliographyAtkinson, D. 1997. A Critical Approach to Critical Thinking. TESOL Quarterly 31, 71-94. Blair, J. Anthony and Ralph H. Johnson. 1991. Misconceptions of Informal Logic: A Reply to McPeck. Teaching Philosophy 14.1, 35-52. Davidson, Bruce. 1995. Critical Thinking Education Faces the Challenge of Japan. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 14.3, 31 pars., http://www.shss.montclair.edu/inquiry/spr95/davidson.html. Fuller, Steve. 1997. Science. Birmingham: Open UP. Hatcher, Donald. 1995a. Critical Thinking and Epistemic Obligations. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 14.3, 38 pars., http://www.shss.montclair.edu/inquiry/spr95/hatcher2.html. Hatcher, Donald. 1995b. Should Anti-Realists Teach Critical Thinking?. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 14.4, 21 pars., http://www.shss.montclair.edu/inquiry/summ95/hatcher.html. Hongladarom, Soraj. 1998a. Critical Thinking and the Realism/Anti-Realism Debate, http://pioneer.chula.ac.th/~hsoraj/web/CT.html. Hongladarom, Soraj. 1998b. Humanistic Education in Todays and Tomorrows World. Manusya: Journal of Humanities, 1 (forthcoming). Hostetler, Karl. 1991. Community and Neutrality in Critical Thought: A Nonobjectivist View on the Conduct and Teaching of Critical Thinking. Educational Theory, 41.1, 1-12. Matilal, Bimal Krishna. 1990. Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. McGuire, John. 1998. Is Critical Thinking Cultural Thinking?. Unpublished ms. McPeck, John E. 1991. What is Learned in Informal Logic?, Teaching Philosophy, 14.1, 25-34. Needham, Joseph. 1969. The Grand Titration: Science and Society in East and West. London: Allen Unwin. Paul, Richard. 1993. Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World. Santa Rosa, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Ronan, Colin A. 1978. The Shorter Science and Civilization in China: An Abridgement of Needhams Original Text. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sutton, Robert. 1995. Realism and Other Philosophical Mantras. Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, 14.4, 18 pars., http://www.shss.montclair.edu/inquiry/summ95/sutton.html. Tscherbatsky, F. Th. 1962. Buddhist Logic. New York: Dover. References The literature on the nature and definitions of critical thinking are enormous. Probably the most intense debate among critical thinking experts centers on the question whether critical thinking can be a separate autonomous academic disciplines dealing with the general form of thinking to be applied by students in all of their academic areas. Or whether it is not autonomous at all, but should always be part of important academic disciplines. However, I believe that these debates give us little understanding of what critical thinking should be. For critical thinking would be nothing if not applied to real cases, and the study of it would not be totally effective if the skills and theories unique to it were not abstracted and studied on their own. The other debates focuses on the nature of critical thinking, or the meaning of critical thinking itself. Richard Paul (1993) provides a definition that no one can gainsay: Critical thinking is the kind of thinking one thinks of on es thinking in order to make ones thinking better. Hatcher (1995a; 1995b) calls for the kind of critical thinking that is based on the so-called epistemological realist position this is contrasted by Sutton (1995) and Hostetler (1991), who argue that critical thinking is more amenable to the anti-realist position. Whatever it is, there is still no correct definition concerning the true meaning of critical thinking.