Sunday, March 22, 2020

American Football free essay sample

Basketball is a game played between two teams of five players in which points are scored by shooting a ball through a netted hoop fixed 10ft above each end of the court. Football is a form of team game played in North America with an oval ball used to throw or to run with on a field marked out as a gridiron. Basketball and football are two extremely popular sports but they are different in many was such as shape of the ball, playing surface, number of players, and style of play and length of game. The first differences between basketball and football is the shape of the ball and what each team playing surface is. Basketballs are round and made for dribbling. Footballs are oval shaped and made for throwing passes and running with the ball high and tight. Basketball can be played in a gym or an outside court during hot, warm and cold weather. We will write a custom essay sample on American Football or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Football is played in a field during warm, cold, hot, snow and even rainy weather. Although both basketball and football are played with leather or composite leather balls but the similarities end there when it comes to a football and a basketball. Basketballs are round and give a good bounce every time. Footballs have an oblong shape and take some weird bounces when they hit the ground. The footballs shape is intended to fly better in the air and be easier to catch. In addition, basketballs are larger and heavier than footballs. Even though Basketball courts are much shorter and narrower than football fields. The National Basketball Association noted that all basketball courts should measure 94 feet by 50 feet, which is quite small compared to football fields because they are 120 yards by 53. Indoor basketball courts usually are made of wood, while football fields use natural grass or a synthetic also Both basketball and football are considered team sports since there are several people playing at once. Basketball teams are allowed to play with five players on the court at one time, while football teams play with 11 at a time. Basketball teams usually have between 12 and 15 players on the roster, while football rosters can range from 50 in professional play to 75 in college games. Football and basketball have decidedly different styles of play based on the rules. Football is a contact sport, with tackles and physical hits and collisions on every play. Basketball is considered a non-contact sport a physical contact in basketball is a violation that would result in fouls. Basketball games are higher scoring than football even though basketball teams are awarded only 2 or 3 points for a made field goal and 1 point for a made free throw. Football grants 6 points for a touchdown, 3 points for a field goal and 2 points for a safety, but scoring is much less frequent than in basketball. Football games are played for much longer times than basketball games. Football games at the professional and college level have 60 minutes in a game, while high school football plays 48 minute games. Basketball plays 48 minute games at the pro level, 40 minute games in college and 32 minute games in high school. Both football and basketball games have several thing that will stop he game due to timeouts, fouls or penalties and halftime, which means both last much longer than the actual game time is self. That is probably the reason basketball and football are so popular all around the world because they are so different and people don’t want to see the same stuff going on between different sports. All in all, most sports, especially team sports like basketball and football, give players a chance to develop themselves physically. These differences in both sports is what makes them so popular to the world.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Ancient Maya Essay Essay Example

Ancient Maya Essay Essay Example Ancient Maya Essay Essay Ancient Maya Essay Essay Ancient Maya Essay Matthew Pitcher Mrs Meligrana Ancient Civilizations June 8th, 2011 Pitcher1 The Ancient Mayan civilization stands out from other ancient civilizations and is great because of its outstanding achievements and developments. The Mayans are still known to this day for their exceptional architecture, medical discoveries, astronomy, and military tactics which were very successful. In this essay I will explain what the Mayans have achieved to make themselves considered great, why they are great, and why they overcome many of the other ancient civilizations. Mayan astronomy has been considered one of the most complex of mankind. Of all the worlds ancient calendar systems, the Maya and other Mesoamerica systems are the most complex, and accurate. Calculations of the 260-day and the 365-day Maya cycles is almost exactly equal to the actual solar year in the tropics, with only a 19-minute margin of error, which is almost scary to see how precise they were. Mayan Astronomers used shadow casting devices, and observations to trace the movements of the sun. the stars and planets in order to observe, calculate and record this information in their chronicles, as they call it . From these observations, the Maya developed calendars to keep track of celestial movements and time. Something never seen before by any other civilization in history, truly amazing, and we still use the 365 day calendar today. Another reason why Maya is great is because of their form of numbers and arithmetic’s, the first civilization to constitute math and numbers in everyday life. Maya mathematics constituted the most sophisticated mathematical system ever developed in the Americas. Pitcher2 The Maya counting system required only three symbols: a dot representing a alue of one, a bar representing five, and a shell representing zero. These three symbols were used in many different combinations, to keep track of calendar events both past and future, and so that even uneducated people could understand when needed for trade and commerce. That the Maya understood the value of zero is remarkable most of the worlds civilizations had no concept of zero at that time. By far one of t he most fascinating achievements of the Mayans was there methods and development of their beautiful architectural buildings and designs. Whether their temples, complexes, buildings, homes, sidewalks or causeways (which were built by hand cut lime-stone), and the first civilization to construct sidewalks for pedestrians. A Maya city from the Classic Period usually consisted of a series of platforms topped by masonry structures, ranging from great temple-pyramids and palaces to individual house mounds. These structures were in turn arranged around open plazas or courtyards. Maya architecture is characterized by a sophisticated sense of decoration and art, expressed in beautiful carvings and wall paintings, unlike any others. Throughout the Mayans 2000 year history, their unique warfare tactics turned out to be very successful for their civilization. Unlike most other civilizations, instead of a head to head close range battle, the Mayans built an army of spearmen and arrow shooters to kill the enemy. Long range war tactic was there specialty and it worked. They killed their enemy before their enemy could reach them, using the land and surroundings they built trenches and barricades to Pitcher3 fool and surprise the enemy, along with bells and whistles to distract the enemy to let fellow soldiers know the enemy is on its way. Also, the Mayan armies did not use horses or chariots in battle much like the other militaries did. Unfortunately for their enemies, the Mayans were keen on taking prisoners†¦ for the express purpose of sacrificing them on a temple altar, in front of the entire tribe. The belief was that by eating the heart of an enemy warrior, you could gain a some of that warrior’s strength. Medicine to the Mayan people was very important, a balance between religion and science, much like we see today. They healed wounds with human hair, fixed fractures, and used casts. Very skilled dental surgeons using different materials to fill teeth when one suffered from a cavity or chipped tooth. Also used â€Å"Obsidian† blades to perform surgeries, Obsidian blades are still used today in many North American hospitals. They cut cleaner so wounds heal faster and with less scar tissue. Finally, the Mayans created the first artificial pain killer for humans. The advancement the Mayan civilization had the medical field before any other civilizations is remarkable and should be noticed. The Mayan civilization deserves the title as a great Civilization because of these outstanding achievements and special ways. Scientifically and mathematically they were genius. Their architecture exceeds the look of any other civilization, and their tactics for building a military and a city is overly impressive. I am not so sure modern day life would be the same without the greatness the ancient Mayan civilization. Webster, David . The Fall of the Ancient Maya, Thames Hudson Ltd, London, 2002 Ayache, Michelle, The Ancient Maya, digitalmeesh. com/maya/history. htm, 2005 Robert, J, Sharer, The Ancient Maya, Stanford University Press, 2006 Shirley, Jordon, The Mayan Civilization, 2001

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures - Essay Example For a private disposal system seeking approval by a local authority, the organization must provide FSIS with the approval letter from the authority upon request. 1 A provision of clean running water that abides by the National Primary Drinking water convention(40 CFR part 141), at a required pressure and appropriate temperature must be provided in the necessary areas ( for cleaning rooms and equipment, packaging materials, for processing products and for workers hygienic facilities, etc). If the organization source its water from the Municipal, then it must provide a water report issued under the authority of the local health agency certifying to the portability of the water delivery to FSIS upon request. And if the organization uses water from a private source then it must hand in the documentation to the FSIS upon request, certifying the portability of water supply that has been renewed within a six-month duration. 2) Ice, water and liquid smoke solutions used in food production may be reused for the same function, provide that they are sanitized from fecal coliform organism, pathogenic organisms and also minimization of other chemical, physical, and microbiological infectivity to avoid product adulteration. 3)Water, ice, and solutions used to wash unprocessed products may be recycled for the same functions provided that caution is taken to minimize chemical, physical and microbiological contagion for the prevention of product contamination. Do not use recycled materials that has contacted raw materials in a finished product. 4) Reconditioned water that has no contact with human waste and has been treated by an onsite highly developed sewer treatment unit may be used on raw product, except in inedible and edible production areas, and product formulation provide that caution is taken to ensure that prescribed criteria in National Primary Drinking Water regulations Act

Monday, February 3, 2020

Amendment Impact Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Amendment Impact - Assignment Example Despite this extent of unreliability, the supreme courts in most states still insist on the evidence from show up identification. This majority rule approach employs malleable and outdated facts; as a result the show up type of evidence is routinely used against innocent defendants during criminal trials. In some states however, defendants are offered meaning protection under the constitution. Such reforms come in form of evolution of the approach that is used by the majority. Here, much more relevant facts and circumstances are added in the analysis. The next one is a revolution that goes against the majority approach. In this instance, the evidence from show up identification is prohibited unless it is at the time of show up. It is applicable in cases where existing circumstances avert the use of photo array or line up process; or lack of probable cause for arresting the suspect, and there is no cause for illegally arresting him long enough while awaiting line up or photo array results. The best thing about the revolutionary show up approach is that it provides innocent defendants protection against any form of false identification and wrong convictions. Most bodies especially those concerning the human rights have persistently urged the supreme courts to adopt the revolutionary methods. Despite all these compulsions, the courts are still very adamant in their trials. Most trial courts will thwart the minority rule by distortion of the two exemptions thus exposing defendants to wrongful trials. When there is false eyewitness identification and wrong convictions, truth is always uncovered by the use of post conviction DNA tests. However, in many major criminal cases, normally criminal evidence is either destroyed or even considered nonexistent. This results into significant problems for the defendant whom in most cases is

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Pearl in the Novel Scarlet Letter

Pearl in the Novel Scarlet Letter The novel scarlet letter was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. He wanted to expose the immorality that was committed by two parents of a daughter called Pearl. Nathaniels novel explores very clearly the themes of the themes of guilt, sin, and legalism. The plot of the novel takes place in the 17th century in Boston Massachusetts. The novel tells a story of Hester Prynne who gives birth to a daughter having committed adultery and tries all what she can so as to ensure that she live of repentance and dignity. In this paper we are going to explore the characteristics and influence of pearl, the daughter of Hester Prynne, and how she is used by the author in order to advance the themes of the novel. We are also going to look at how symbolism is used in this book and how it was successful in ensuring that Nathaniel Hawthornes massage was passed across. Pearl is among the characters that are complex and elaborate in the novel scarlet letter. Pearl is the daughter illegitimate daughter of Author Dimmesdale and Hester Prynne. As one reads through the novel they realize that she is a very dynamic individual who keeps on changing depending on the prevailing circumstances in order to survive and to also help in bringing out clearly the massage that the writer wanted to pass when he was writing the book (Mary, 99). The other members of the society keep on shunning and avoiding Pearl because of her mothers sin and she remains a constant reminder of to both the members of the society and also the reader of Hesters sin. They live in a bad house in the outskirts of Boston where they tend to avoid the humiliation in the hands the other villagers. Pearl is vividly described by Hawthorn in page 81 as the infant whose guiltless life was the product of inscrutable decree of providence (Mary, 133). He refers to her as lovely and a flower that that is immortal that does not realize the guilty that led to its existence. From the beginning of her life she is viewed as a punishment, a product of sin that should that everybody that has some dignity should avoid at all times. All this treatment affects Pearl and she is not like the normal of the society. Her only rescue is that nature and the animals around her treat her well and somehow accept her in a way that her community did not. It is also important to note that pearl was a very beautiful child. On page 81 and 82 Hawthorne describes her beauty very clearly. Pearl had beauty that really shone with deep and vivid tints. Unlike most of the other girls she had a bright complexion; she had eyes that possessed intensity of both glow and depth. Her hair was also beautiful; it had a deep brown that was glowed whenever she walked. All this physical characteristics made her really beautiful. She also had a good sense of fashion. She always wore lavish dresses that emphasized her beauty and many of the puritan people to think of her as a strange. The main re ason for this was that the other puritan children wore the traditional clothing and to them they could never consider a person who did not look liked them or dress like them as one of them. This treatment made Pearl a very troubled child and even when the other children for one reason or another showed her some interest she would be really irritated and pick up stones and fling them at them. Another characteristic of Pearl is that she is very strong and she turns every situation in to her advantage. Since other children are not willing to accept her as one of them she decides to live with nature and animals because these are the only things that show her acceptance. On page 168 hawthorn talks about the light that happily lingers about the child that is lonely as if it is glad to have found such a loving playing mate. We are also told that the sunshine accepts pearl as an equal. The great forest also becomes the playmate of this lonely child. The natural things become her only friends and this in the end makes this child a very weird child. Every child needs human company so that they may be able to grow in a way that can be considered normal. We are told that Pearl character lacked reference and she could not relate in any way to the world that she was born. She not affected in any way by the life of the Puritan life, the only thing that has influence to this child is on ly nature and its life. She has been thrust out of her communitys life and the only way of life that she can identify to is that of the forest and the things of nature. The people of her society views her as not only a weird and strange kid born out of a sinful act, they also consider and view her in very mixed feelings. Many people do not comprehend her. A good example is where Hester tells Dimmesdale that she hardly understands this child but she will love her to the end nevertheless. She goes on and states that sometimes she is afraid of little Pearl. To Dimmesdale, he is really confused in that he really loves the kid and in truth he wants to make peace with her and know her better but this is no possible because he is not prepared to lose his political and social status by acknowledging her in public. Pearl is a very sensitive and inquisitive child. These characteristics are brought about by the fact that she had a very elaborate and perplexing history. She is brought up without a father and she does not even know who her father is. The only person who she can freely identify with is her mother and even she is ostracized from the community as well. For this reasons she grows to be a very sensitive and a curious kid. She is always on her mothers case wanting to know what Hester would rather not tell her. She wants to know who her father is and why they live the two of them and not with their father like many of the other families in the society. Symbolism is used very much in this novel. Throughout the whole novel many of the characters represent other ideas. Nathaniel Hawthorne deliberately uses symbolism so as to enhance the themes of the novel. Pearl being one of the most misunderstood characters in the novel is used to advance different themes. Pearl throughout the book, develops into a symbol that is very dynamic. It is very important to note that pearl all through the novel symbolizes evil. She symbolizes evil in the sense that she is born through sin and therefore she represents the punishment that God inflicts on Hesters adulterous act. Pearl also symbolizes the guilt that her parents are experiencing. She defies the puritans law by being cheerful when she is associating with nature instead of suffering. Another way in which pearl symbolizes punishment is the fact that she keeps pestering and bothering her mother. All through this novel it is very important for the reader to note how mocking and pestering her mother, one may get the feeling that he is a witch baby send out to torment her mother. In many cases babies is a joy to their mothers but in Pearls case she was just the opposite and in this the author clearly and effectively used symbolism in pearls case to symbolize punishment and suffering. It is also important to note that the Pearl has strong emotions and she also has a bad temper with a capacity to do evil deeds. These characteristics ensure that Hesters life is full of misery and she once asked god what kind of being she had brought on earth. Her daughter constantly harass her over the scarlet A that she was wearing and in time Hester was the subject of a lot of ridicule from the members of the society and even her own daughter and when this became hard to bear she just decided to live on seclusion. Pearl as a person symbolizes the sins of both Hester and Dimmesdale. This child is the direct effect and results of the sin of adultery. She also represents the sin of lying. One has to notice the way; Hester and Dimmesdale keep on lying to the society about the affair that led to the birth of Pearl. These two keep on avoiding telling the truth about the biological father of the Pearl. Even Pearl herself did not have a clue who really was her father and this affected her life. We can also see the way Dimmesdale is undergoing a lot of internal pain in that He really wants to show his daughter love but the situation in which this girl was conceived makes it very hard for him to let the members of the society know that he is the real father of pearl. It is very important to also note that the Dimmesdale did not commit the sin of adultery but only the sin of concealing the truth that he was party to the act that brought Pearl to this world. It is very important to note that Pearl was a very clever child. She could read her surrounding and other people behavior to understand the things that she was not supposed to understand (Edwin and Louis, 143). A good example is where she was very perturbed by the behavior of Dimmesdale when he put his had across is chest just where his heart was. Pearl seemed to connect this to Hesters scarlet letter and know that something was not right. She is so smart to an extend that her mother thinks that she is not a real human being. Hawthorn also used symbolism in that he uses pearl to represent the scarlet letter. We are told that even when she was a baby she was attracted to the scarlet letter. This is confirmed on page 90 where we are told that her infant eyes could not leave the glimmering part of the gold embroidery. When she is a little bit older, Hester throws the letter on the ground and Pearl reacts very oddly when she screams demanding that the â€Å"A† be picked up. It is also important to note that the â€Å"A† is the only way that the colonialists choose to crime and punishment to the criminals in the society. The functions of Pearl in the novel are great. The reason for this is that she is the character that helps and guides the reader to really know what is happening in the story. There are some hidden meanings in the book and she also helps the reader to pick up these points so that they can really understand what the book is talking about. She aids the reader with her commentaries, her thought process and her inquisitive questions that she asks through out the novel (Edwin and Louis, 56). We can say that Pearl is an indispensable character to the reader that helps him to understand the themes that are being put forward by the author. One has to notice the way Pearl is different from the other children of her own age. She did not make any friends in the society. In fact any child that tried to make friend with were met with a moody child that preferred to play alone and only interact with the natural things. Being a lonely kid Pearl opts to communicate with her own reflection and this a lso helps the reader to know what is happening in the book. For her age, pearl is able to communicate effectively with adults like her parents. She relates with them in a very complicated way that other children her own age can not do and through this we see he asking her parents very hard questions. This characteristic helps the author to pass across the themes that he intended to pass when he was writing the novel like sin punishment and guilt. Work cited Budd, Louis, and Candy, Edwin. On Hawthorne: the best from American literature. Durham. Duke University Press, 1990. Cooper, Michael. The Scarlet Letter and Symbolism. January 2009. Retrieved on 30/07/2009. http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Scarlet-Letter-and- Symbolismid=78659. Hawthorne, Nathaniel, And Robinson, Herbert. The Scarlet Letter. Washington DC: Plain Label Books, 1954. Hurst, Mary. The voice of the child in American literature: linguistic approaches to fictional child language. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1990. Schmidt, Anja. Pearls Twilight Nature in The Scarlet Letter: Emblem of Sin or Self- fulfilling Prophecy?. Berlin: GRIN Verlag, 2007.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Introduction To Research

Research is a high-hat word that scares a lot of people. It is a welcoming attitude towards change. The research state of mind can apply to anything. It is a problem-solving mind. What is Research? Research is defined as a careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge, undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster, 1984). Research is defined as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test an existing theory.The Value of Research Research helps professionals by providing information to make decisions, or o perform their functions more effectively. Teachers need to know what teaching method can be used Health services providers need health-related data in developing health programs Research Improves the Quality of Life Quality research is the lifeblood of any scientific discipline. Without it, disciplines would stagnate, failing to advance past their current limits and unders tanding. (Wan 1997 p. 7) General Types of Research Research can be classified into three categories: Descriptive research Correlation or association research Experimental or intervention research Descriptive Research The descriptive of study finds answer to the questions who, what, where and how. This type of research describes a situation or a given state of affairs in terms of specified aspects or factors. Examples of research topics fall under the descriptive type: 1 . ‘The management style of school administrators in Lillo City' 2.Tardiness and absenteeism among high school students† 3. â€Å"The insecticidal properties of pepper Explanatory or Correlation Research An explanatory study goes beyond description of the problem or situation. It attempts to explain the possible factors related to a problem which have en observed in a descriptive study. This study answers the questions why and how. The factors related to the problem, however, need not be viewed as real â €Å"causes† Of the problem, but factors which are associated with or may contribute to the occurrence of the problem.Certain factors are â€Å"assumed† to explain or contribute to the existence of a problem or a certain condition or the variation in a given situation. The researcher usually uses a theory or a hypothesis to account for or explain the forces that are â€Å"assumed to have caused† the problem. For example, relationships between the following pairs f variables can be studied: 1. Gender Grades 2. Knowledge about cancer compliance with medical regimen 3.Educational attainment repayment status of cooperative members Intervention or Experimental Research The intervention or experimental type of research evaluates the effect or outcome of a particular intervention or treatment. It studies the â€Å"cause and effect† relationship between certain factors on a certain phenomenon under controlled conditions. The following examples of research topics f all under the explanatory or correlation category: 1 . â€Å"The Effect of Different Levels of Applied Nitrogen on the growth and Yield of Rice† Experimental vs..Non- experimental Research Experimental research Treatments are given to subjects Cause-and-effect questions Non-experimental research Treatments are not given to subjects Participants are observed as they naturally exist Other Dichotomies of Research There are other classification of research: 1. Pure or Applied 2. Exploratory or Explanatory 3. Quantitative or Qualitative Pure Basic Attempts to describe an existing situation and/or explain certain patterns of behavior using either or both qualitative and quantitative research cuisines Pure research offers better descriptions and better explanation of human behavior.The intention is to accumulate knowledge about a certain phenomenon. Doesn't necessarily provide results of immediate, practical use Applied Research Aims to see an immediate solution to a problem Focuses on variables or factors which can be changed by intervention in order to achieve a desired goal An experimental study comparing the effectiveness of two methods of improving a situation Exploratory Designed to describe an existing problem situation and examine the underlying factors that contribute to the emergence of the problemExplanatory To understand or explain a prevailing situation or explain a relationship between factors which may have already been identified in exploratory studies Seek more specific answers to ‘Sunny† and â€Å"how† questions Quantitative vs.. Qualitative Research Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analyses Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment Research may be obtrusive or non-obtrusive: Obtrusive research – where the researcher introduces conditions that influence participants. Introduction To Research Research is a high-hat word that scares a lot of people. It is a welcoming attitude towards change. The research state of mind can apply to anything. It is a problem-solving mind. What is Research? Research is defined as a careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge, undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster, 1984). Research is defined as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test an existing theory.The Value of Research Research helps professionals by providing information to make decisions, or o perform their functions more effectively. Teachers need to know what teaching method can be used Health services providers need health-related data in developing health programs Research Improves the Quality of Life Quality research is the lifeblood of any scientific discipline. Without it, disciplines would stagnate, failing to advance past their current limits and unders tanding. (Wan 1997 p. 7) General Types of Research Research can be classified into three categories: Descriptive research Correlation or association research Experimental or intervention research Descriptive Research The descriptive of study finds answer to the questions who, what, where and how. This type of research describes a situation or a given state of affairs in terms of specified aspects or factors. Examples of research topics fall under the descriptive type: 1 . ‘The management style of school administrators in Lillo City' 2.Tardiness and absenteeism among high school students† 3. â€Å"The insecticidal properties of pepper Explanatory or Correlation Research An explanatory study goes beyond description of the problem or situation. It attempts to explain the possible factors related to a problem which have en observed in a descriptive study. This study answers the questions why and how. The factors related to the problem, however, need not be viewed as real â €Å"causes† Of the problem, but factors which are associated with or may contribute to the occurrence of the problem.Certain factors are â€Å"assumed† to explain or contribute to the existence of a problem or a certain condition or the variation in a given situation. The researcher usually uses a theory or a hypothesis to account for or explain the forces that are â€Å"assumed to have caused† the problem. For example, relationships between the following pairs f variables can be studied: 1. Gender Grades 2. Knowledge about cancer compliance with medical regimen 3.Educational attainment repayment status of cooperative members Intervention or Experimental Research The intervention or experimental type of research evaluates the effect or outcome of a particular intervention or treatment. It studies the â€Å"cause and effect† relationship between certain factors on a certain phenomenon under controlled conditions. The following examples of research topics f all under the explanatory or correlation category: 1 . â€Å"The Effect of Different Levels of Applied Nitrogen on the growth and Yield of Rice† Experimental vs..Non- experimental Research Experimental research Treatments are given to subjects Cause-and-effect questions Non-experimental research Treatments are not given to subjects Participants are observed as they naturally exist Other Dichotomies of Research There are other classification of research: 1. Pure or Applied 2. Exploratory or Explanatory 3. Quantitative or Qualitative Pure Basic Attempts to describe an existing situation and/or explain certain patterns of behavior using either or both qualitative and quantitative research cuisines Pure research offers better descriptions and better explanation of human behavior.The intention is to accumulate knowledge about a certain phenomenon. Doesn't necessarily provide results of immediate, practical use Applied Research Aims to see an immediate solution to a problem Focuses on variables or factors which can be changed by intervention in order to achieve a desired goal An experimental study comparing the effectiveness of two methods of improving a situation Exploratory Designed to describe an existing problem situation and examine the underlying factors that contribute to the emergence of the problemExplanatory To understand or explain a prevailing situation or explain a relationship between factors which may have already been identified in exploratory studies Seek more specific answers to ‘Sunny† and â€Å"how† questions Quantitative vs.. Qualitative Research Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analyses Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment Research may be obtrusive or non-obtrusive: Obtrusive research – where the researcher introduces conditions that influence participants.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Hcs 245 Culture and Disease Paper

Culture and Disease Paper – Malaria Erin E. Nelson HCS 245 September 5, 2011 Andrea Dale Culture and Disease Paper – Malaria It tropical and sub-tropical climates temperature, humidity, and rainfall work together to create a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are a host for communicable diseases one in particular is called malaria. Malaria is a parasitic disease that infects a particular type of mosquito, Anopheles mosquitoes, which feeds on humans. People who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010) Individuals living in climates that support the life cycle of these mosquitoes are more at risk than those who do not. If temperatures fall below 68 degrees Fahrenheit the mosquitoes cannot complete their growth cycle. Africa, parts of South America and Asia have incurred the majority of the malaria epidemic (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). I this paper I will cover: populations vulnerable to malaria, factors that make these populations vulnerable, modes of transmission, methods used to control the spread of malaria, the role of social/cultural influences and share community health promotion and wellness strategies. In particular young children and pregnant women are more at risk for contracting malaria. Young children have not built up or acquired immunity to the disease and without immunity infections are more severe and life threatening (The World Health Organization Staff, 2010). More than 40% of the world’s children live in places where malaria is a constant threat. Most children die from malaria because they do not get effective treatment† (Episcopal Relief and Development Staff, 2009). Pregnant women have compromised immune systems due to the pregnancy leaving them at risk. Also individuals suffering from other diseases such as HIV, malnutrition and anemia are vulnerable (Global Health – Divis ion of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). The parasite that causes malaria infects two hosts: the female Anopheles mosquitoes and humans (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). The mosquito is essentially unharmed, unscathed, from the parasite but acts as a vector and transmits the disease from human to human each time it feeds. The parasites are found in the mosquitoes’ salivary glands; it injects the saliva when feeding, and passes the parasite on to its â€Å"meal†. While the parasite is in humans it moves through the blood where its transferred to the liver. The parasite makes a home in the human’s liver and in the red blood cells it grows. The life cycle continues in each red blood cell, destroying them and creating daughter parasites (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). In order to control the spread of malaria scientists created antibiotics to cure the ailment to help minimize the spread of the disease. Chloroquine was the first antibiotic created by german scientist, Han Andersag, in 1946. A German chemistry student, Othmer Zeidler, synthesized DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) in 1874 but the insecticide properties were not discovered until 1939 (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). It was used by soldiers to keep mosquitoes away so they would not contract typhus and malaria will on the battle field. The CDC (Communicable Disease Center) was created as a new component of the U. S. Public Health Service and has been working to combat Malaria since 1946. The new center was the direct successor of the Office of Malaria Control in War Areas, an agency established in 1942 to limit the impact of malaria and other vector-borne diseases (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). Another mode of prevention is proper medication and insecticide while traveling in areas that are highly saturated in mosquitoes and reported cases of malaria. † Every year, millions of US residents travel to countries where malaria is present (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). About 1,500 cases of malaria are diagnosed in the United States annually, mostly in returned travelers† (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). Malaria risk is not distributed homogeneously throughout all countries. Some destinations have malaria transmission occurring throughout the whole country, while in others it occurs in defined pockets so the traveler should be weary of areas whose climate is conducive to mosquitoes. The WHO Global Malaria Programme is responsible for evidence-based policy and strategy formulation, technical assistance, capacity building, malaria surveillance, onitoring and evaluation, and coordination of global efforts to fight malaria. WHO is also a co-founder and hosts the Roll Back Malaria partnership, which is the global framework to implement coordinated action against malaria (The World Health Organization Staff, 2010). The CDC participates actively in global malaria efforts through work with the WHO, Roll Back Malaria Part ners, UNICEF, and more in the fight to keep the epidemic at bay (Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010). Conclusion Malaria is a very contagious parasite transmitted through mosquitoes to humans. Those at risk are individuals living in areas conducive to the breeding of mosquitoes, especially those that allow the mosquitoes to complete their growth cycle. Everyone is at risk especially with the numbers of travelers increasing the risk of the traveler bringing it home to the states is probable. Preventable measures have been created such as DDT in insect repellant and antibiotics. The epidemic has ceased in the States but continues to be a problem in Africa and Asia. References Episcopal Relief and Development Staff. (2009). Malaria FAQs. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from NETSFORLIFE: http://www. netsforlifeafrica. org/malaria/malaria-faqs Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases . (2010, February 28). Malaria. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www. cdc. gov/malaria/about/disease. html The World Health Organization Staff. (2010, April). Malaria Center. Retrieved September 3, 2011, from World Health Center: http://www. who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/index. html